The strategy for the enhancement of diplomatic manoeuvrability:
This concerns the strategies adopted by the third world, that is still grappling with the challenges of development, the emphasis placed upon relationship with the Europeans in term of finding solution to the development problems in the context of the problematic inter block rivalry involving crisis, war, conflict and disputes, between the Western and the defunct Eastern European powers in the post World War 11 period, known as the cold war era. To enhance their diplomatic manoeuvrability under this circumstance, two strategies emerged – diversification and balanced benefaction.
- Balance benefaction or balanced dependence:
This implies a strategy of equidistance in bilateral relations. It implies maintaining either equal distance from or equal nearness to both the West and the defunct East. The logic of the strategy put it that underdeveloped state must ensure that if it establishes ties a “cold war” related dispute, it must do so with the opposing states.
For instance, ties must either be established with both North Korea and South Korea or with none of them, with both the USA and Soviet Union or with none of them. Balance benefaction or dependence thus required maintenance of equal distance or nearness in a developing or third world states, military, diplomatic, political and economic relations with the great blocs.
This involves the diversification of all aspects of the external relations of the concerned states. This included the policy of dispersal of external trade; increasing the source of foreign loan; multiplication of the sources of military supplies and expanding the bases for training indigenous personnel and so on.
The major objective of the strategy of diversified dependence is the reduction of the vulnerability of a state to external influence and pressure. Diversification has been very useful for the developing countries, yet this strategy of diversified dependence carries along with it the seed of its own destruction.
Strategies aimed at transforming the domestic Base:
According to Olajide Aluko, this strategy indicates the essence of looking inwards, of transforming domestic base of national power in order to better deal with problems and development that arises from the internal as well as external environment.
- Regional integration:
This strategy involves the gradual union of national economies. It is directed towards facilitating the expansion of market, aiding industrialization and transforming the base of national power. It is also aimed at pulling the diplomatic resources of the cooperating state as to enable them become strong enough to deal with the development and problems arising from the external environment-especially the activities of powerful external actors. It may take any of the following forms: free trade area, custom union and economic community.
Strategy for self reliance:
Self reliance simply means the ability to set one own goals and then to realise them as much as possible through one’s own effort and one’s own resources
Self reliance is a strategy which seeks to build up and use the capacity for autonomous decision making and implementation in all aspect of development. It stresses autonomy rather than dependence.
It is essentially but not an exclusively inward looking strategy. At the domestic level it involves full mobilization of indigenous human and material resources. In the economic realm, it stresses a restructuring of the productive system in such a way as to ensure autonomous production without relying on other societies or external actors.