There are various methods used in controlling environmental pollution which are through government legislation, population control, location of industries, establishment of government environmental agencies, international treaty, sanitation law, building of sewage, channeling gutters away from fresh waters, lakes, rivers, building of refuse dumps or bowels, proper maintenance and redesigning of machines to reduce the production of fumes, controlling the channeling of industrial waters, containing crude oil spillage and agricultural wastes etc.
Government legislation is a method used in controlling pollution. It is under the fundamental objectives and directive principles of state policy in Nigeria to protect the Nigerian environment. Section 20 of the 1999 constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria provides that “the states shall protect and improve the environment and safeguard the water, air and land, forest and wild life of Nigeria”. Both the National and State House of Assemblies have passed various laws on environmental protection.
Establishment of governmental agencies:
The establishment of governmental agencies helps in the effective supervision, control, monitoring and prevention of pollution. They also help in the disposal and management of waste. Industrial wastes from multinational companies, hotels, markets, homes, and workshop are checked and control by government agencies.
The ministry of health in the federal and state government through their sanitation officers supervises and control pollution in various sections of the state and capital. It is important to note that sanitation courts were established to try an offender who violates sanitation laws.
The education of the masses on the various disadvantages resulting from polluted environment is carried out by the news media. Government also encourages the education of the masses on dangers of environmental pollution.
The last Saturday of every month in some states in Nigeria are selected for general clean up of the state. The teaching of environmental pollution as a general studies in higher institution also helps to educate the masses on the dangers of environmental pollution.
The international treaty agreement has limited the proliferation of arms and nuclear weapon. Chemical plants all over the world particularly among industrialized world, has become a source of danger and pollution to man.
The treat agreement has limited the establishment of nuclear plants, countries like Russia, China, Korea, and France has been cautioned over nuclear test. The war against Iraq by America and its allies was on the allegation that Iraq was producing a weapon of mass destruction.
Iran and North Korea have also been sanctioned by the international community over the establishment of nuclear plants. This treaty agreement is usually effective on all countries that are members of the United Nations.
Location of Industries and Market:
Another method of controlling environmental pollution is through selecting a particular location to be an industrial zone. By this method, the wastes generated by these industries are managed and disposed of conveniently with less effect on the environment.
Location of market is another important factor to consider in avoiding environmental pollution. The pollution resulting from markets are very high on the environment. Most market generates a very high rate of waste. The location of market and proper management of markets wastes in such areas help to control pollution.
The rate of pollution is directly linked to population expansion. The controls of population at the same time reduce the rate of pollution. This sort of control is effective where citizens are encouraged to reduce the birth of children per family or where the government discourages the concentration of a number of people in an area.
In conclusion, proper maintenance and redesigning of machines are effective measures of controlling pollution in the environment. Again, the treatment of sewage and industrial wastes are also methods of controlling pollution in Nigeria environment.