Artificial Intelligence | Development & Problems of (AI)

Artificial intelligence is a term that was coined by John McCarthy in 1956. According to McCarthy, artificial intelligence is the science and the engineering of making intelligent machines. Artificial intelligence is the branch of computer science which aims at developing computers or machines that have the ability and capacity to reason, solve problems and understand languages. It can be used to refer to the designing and development of computer programmes that try to imitate human intelligence and other human characteristics.

The Development of Artificial Intelligence (AI)

No doubt artificial intelligence has been the subject of optimism among those scientists who think it is indeed possible to make machines that can compete with man in almost every activity. Yet the field of (AI) has continued to encounter several setbacks. These setbacks may be due to the fact that artificial intelligence research is highly technical and specialized.

It is also deeply divided into sub-fields that are believed to have often failed to communicate with each other.But then, in spite of all the setbacks, (AI) has become an essential part of the technology industry that provides heavy lifting for many of the most difficult problems in computer science and information technology as well.

Artificial intelligence was optimistically founded on the claim that a central property of humans such as intelligence can be so precisely described that it can be simulated by a machine. For instance, Herbert Simon predicted that “machines will be capable, within twenty years, to start doing any work a man can do”.

But then, even the scientist themselves who are involved in the project of artificial intelligence know that general intelligence or what is known as strong artificial intelligence is quite a very long term goal of scientific research. Besides, it is over twenty years since Herbert Simon predicted it, yet we still await a machine or robot that can do all the works that man can do.

As earlier noted, artificial intelligence has some a setback or problems. Such setbacks or includes traits like planning, learning, reasoning, knowledge, communication, perception and the ability to move and manipulate objects. The development of artificial intelligence began with philosophers and mathematicians when they developed mechanical or formal reasoning.

For example, the study of logic led directly to the invention of the programmable digital electronic computer, based on the work of mathematicians Alan Turing and others. This programmable digital electronic computer can be referred to as an artificial intelligence since it provides intelligence that is not the direct product of human knowledge. Alan Turing formulated a theory of computation which suggested that a machine could simulate any conceivable act of mathematical deduction by simply shuffling symbols as simple as “0” “1”.

Problems of Artificial Intelligence

The central problem of artificial intelligence include reasoning, planning, learning, knowledge, communication, perception and the ability to make or manipulate objects. In addition, to the above problems, researchers and scientists in simulating (or creating) intelligence face the challenges or problems of deduction, reasoning and problem solving.

This is because researchers are yet to create or make a machine that can perform actions that are not part of the programmes. Human beings solve most of their problems using fast, intuitive judgments rather than the conscious, step by step deduction that early artificial intelligence research was able to model.

It has been observed that some of these intelligent machines cannot solve difficult problems the way humans do. Some of these machines experienced what is known as a “combinatorial explosion”. This happens when the amount of memory or computer time required becomes excessive when the problem goes beyond a certain size.

It is quite true that science has made a lot of progress and has broken new grounds in the field of human and mechanical science especially in the field of computer science and computer engineering. However, the loud cry and over exaggerated praise generated by the progress of science and technology in the area of artificial intelligence are, to say the least quite inhuman and illogical.

Think of it: man made things out of his ingenuity and his super intelligence then turned around and elevated or placed that which he made by himself at per or over and above himself in terms of ability and capacity to do things. Is that not folly? It just as if God, after creating humans turned around and boosted that human can do anything He can do.  

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